Raman Analysis in Document Examination

  • Kenneth J. Smith McCrone Associates
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Raman theory, Raman microscopy, Raman scattering, dipole moment, Stokes/anti-Stokes emission, photons, polarizabilty


Analysis of questioned documents can often be aided by chemical characterization of the ink or toner on the document. In cases where there is little visual difference between reference and questioned areas, Raman analysis can provide chemical information about the pigments and resins which may show similarities or differences in printing materials on the documents.This paper provides background information about Raman spectroscopy, as well as examples of its applicability to the analysis of inks, toners, and pencil leads on documents.

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How to Cite
Smith, K. J. (2018). Raman Analysis in Document Examination. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 28, 65-76. https://doi.org/10.31974/jfde28-65-76