The objective static analysis of spatial errors in simulations


  • Bryan Found Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences
  • Doug Rogers
  • Hermann Metz



Simulation, spatial errors, measurement strategies


The Pattern Evidence Analysis Toolbox software (Found, Rogers & Schmittat, 1994) has been specifically designed to take accurate spatial measurements from static handwriting traces including signatures. Forensic handwriting specialists in casework frequently encounter signatures of questionable authenticity. Some criticism has been levelled at this forensic field resulting from the lack of objective data used to draw conclusions regarding the authenticity of questioned signatures. In this study a range of spatial measure ments of 200 known signatures, collected from 10 individuals, was compared to 140 forgeries of their signatures made by 14 forgers. It was found that the forgeries as a group did display significant numbers of spatial errors when compared to genu ine signatures. The results indicate that measurement of spatial errors could be a source of information which can be used to discriminate between possible simulations and genuine signatures, and provide data on the types of errors likely to occur. Information obtained in this study has been used for the devel opment of software (Found, Rogers & Schmittat, 1998), which may ultimately be practicable in the forensic environment.

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2019-12-31 — Updated on 2019-12-31

How to Cite

Found, B., Rogers, D., & Metz, H. (2019). The objective static analysis of spatial errors in simulations. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 29, 61–71.

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